Back in the mid 1990's information about what time was, was quite difficult to come by as there was no internet available to me and as what I found I didn't agree with, I spent many hours thinking hard about it. I worked nights for more than a year which interrupted my sleep and I found that when I awoke at night, I would start thinking about time and would go downstairs and make notes.
Eventually I got my notes together and made a website which you can find below.
My thoughts went on to what was space and what would be at the end of the universe and from this, I came up with the crazy idea that everything came from one thing, space and it's movement is energy that makes up everything in the universe.
I have not come across anything that makes me think that this is totally false, so I have stuck with it, though I can't explain how it all holds together, maybe someone else could take it to another level one day.
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Site last updated at 8.10pm on 4 June 2002
Welcome to the "Fathomless" website where a logical rather than mathematical approach to space and time is used in an attempt to further our understanding of the universe.
The nature of the universe has become clearer over the centuries thanks to learning in Physics and Chemistry.
However, space and time have remained difficult to define or comprehend due to their ethereal, non-material nature. It is not possible to take a piece of them to experiment on.
By defining and finding exactly what space and time are, and by reducing the universe to its "building blocks", it is hoped that some progress in understanding will be made.
On this website answers are suggested to questions such as:
What is energy?
What happens when energy is added to something?
Is empty space something or nothing?
What is nothing?
Does space have an ending? What is beyond it?
What is time?
What slows down the affects of time?
What does time need to occur?
Would time exist for us if we had no memory?
From the answers to these questions, a novel picture of the universe is suggested.
The ideas on this website were "original" to the author at the time of thinking. Since it has been found, whilst searching the Internet that others have in some areas suggested similar ideas, which is encouraging. The conclusions are unique as far as is known.
Energy, Space and Time
What is the universe made up from?
Everything in the universe that we experience and are aware of is either matter, radiation or a force.
Matter, is mass and is made up of atoms, which are usually found in three forms: solids, liquids and gases.
Atoms are made up of sub-particles - protons, neutrons and electrons.
These are made up of elementary particles such as quarks, leptons and bosons etc.
Electromagnetic waves such as light, gamma rays and x-rays, radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation and ultraviolet rays are examples of electromagnetic radiation.
All of these (electromagnetic radiation), are known collectively as the electromagnetic spectrum and are similar in that they move at 186,000 miles per second, the speed of light and differ from each other only with respect to the length of their wavelength. The shorter the wavelength, the higher their energy is.
Forces exist in the form of gravitational fields, magnetic fields and centripetal forces. They produce a change in the size or shape or the motion of a body. Commonly experienced as a "push" or "pull."
Matter, radiation and forces are all interrelated. They are not found independently.
Forces surround matter and matter constantly emits radiation.
They are all part of the same whole. They are all energy related.
At particle acceleration labs such as Fermilab, particles are smashed together at very high energies. When particles are accelerated with enough energy, Einsteins discovery that mass and energy are equivalent (E=MC2 ) is proven because the resulting new particles gain mass and are much heavier than the original particles. The energy that is used to accelerate the particles makes more matter.
The universe is made up of matter, radiation and forces which all "boil down" to energy.
What is energy?
Energy is defined as the capacity of a body for doing work.
That definition does not give a "concrete", easily visualised answer for what energy is.
Asking what affect adding energy to matter and radiation has, helps find the answer to what energy is.
Adding energy to matter, whether it is vibrating, swinging, rotating or moving in a straight line, causes it to move faster. e.g. More thermal energy increases the speed of movement of molecules and causes an increase in its temperature. (In extreme circumstances, the addition of energy can also increase mass, as mentioned above.)
Reducing the amount of energy will cause the speed of movement to slow down.
When radiation loses energy, its wavelength gets longer.
If there was no energy in the universe, all movement would cease. No stars would shine, planets would not rotate, atoms would not vibrate and there would be no electromagnetic radiation such as light.
It would be a cold, black and unchanging universe.
Increased energy causes increased movement. Energy is movement.
The more energy associated with a body, the greater the forces are that surrounds it.
The other "ingredient" of the universe that has so far not been mentioned is space.
Is space something or nothing?
Without space there would be no distances, no three dimensions - length, breadth and thickness.
There would be no volume.
Matter and radiation could not exist without space.
There would be no space for them to occupy or move around in.
Empty space, a vacuum, is thought of as being nothing, but it has three dimensions enabling movement, has a name, can be imagined and is considered able to be distorted by the presence of mass.
Space exists and is something.
What is nothing?
"Nothing" cannot be pictured in the mind; it can have no name except "nothing".
It has no dimensions, no volume. It is not possible to move around in nothing.
"Nothing" has no existence.
It is very difficult to imagine nothing, as everything that is known is something.
Is the universe infinite in size or does it have an end?
If the universe is expanding, then it cannot be of infinite size. Infinity cannot expand; it is already of limitless size.
If it is of limited size it must be finite and have an end.
It is difficult to imagine an end to the universe / everything.
If space is finite, what is beyond its end?
Regarding nothing as dimensionless non-existence is a help to visualising what an end to the universe could be like.
Imagine space existing, probably spherically. Beyond it, no space, no energy, no existence? nothing.
The universe expanding not into something, but "into" nothing? dimensionless non-existence.
We all think that we know what time is, but it is very difficult to think of a clear definition and "what you measure with a clock" may be the quick answer at the first attempt.
Looking in a dictionary or an encyclopędia will not help much.
Considering the consequences of time; what slows down the affects of time; and what would stop the affects of time, helps with understanding and a definition.
The consequence of time is aging. All things age, some faster than others.
A hard solid object such as diamond ages so slowly that we don't notice it changing over time.
Under high magnification, scratches or damage on the surface of the stone would be seen if it was subject to "hard wear". If it was protected from the environment it would not change. It would not age.
Soft objects, such as sandstone, weather and age a lot more quickly because their structures are less strongly held together, so their "grains" are more easily separated from each other.
The faster change occurs, the faster the aging process is.
Liquids, gases and radiation are constantly moving and changing. As their movements and changes are so rapid, we do not think of them as aging. They lack the permanence that gives solids an identity.
Our bodies' age due to the constant movement of chemicals in cells that divide and die, and result in us growing, aging and eventually dying. This "programme" controls all life forms' developments.
During the aging process the movement of atoms and molecules in inanimate objects, or body chemicals in life forms, cause change. Time is the name we give to this process of change.
Anything that exists unchanged does not age. Time does not "touch" it.
The changes in the universe around us are in general, random and chaotic. Some changes however are part of a predictable cycle, with equal, unchanging length, and man has used this predictability for thousands of years to measure time.
The year from the earth orbiting the sun, the month due to the moon orbiting the earth and the day from the revolving of the earth on its axis.
Mankind now has clocks so that time can be measured from microsecond to microsecond.
The clock depends, like all time measurement systems on movement, whether it is a pendulum, the vibrating of an atom or the movement of a planet. Movement that is known, equal and predictable is used as a "template" against which to measure the haphazard, unpredictable, chaotic movements of the world around us.
Slowing and Stopping time.
Slowing the affects of time and aging is possible by cooling. Cooling slows down the movement of atoms and molecules etc.
Cooling food in a fridge or freezer slows down the aging process. The cooler the temperature, the longer the food is preserved. The slower it ages.
Whole bodies can be frozen at a very low temperature i.e. suspended animation.
The bodies do not age and are preserved pretty much indefinitely.
If the movement of all matter and radiation could be slowed down in one area of space; then time would pass slower, and aging would be slower there.
Aging and (the affects of) time could be stopped completely if matter was cooled to absolute zero (-273° C). At this temperature all the matter in the universe would stop moving, causing time to stop. Radiation would not be emitted. No changes would occur; clocks would not tick. The universe would exist in an "eternal instant".
What does time need to occur?
The passing of time depends on movement taking place.
Energy is required to cause movement.
Matter and radiation need space to move around in.
So time is dependent on energy and space and could not occur without them.
Time, flow and direction etc.
The changes that occur in the world around us are continuous and occur in so many aspects of our life, that we talk of the flow of time, which is the flow of movement.
The arrow and direction of time are related to our perception of past - present - future.
Instants, moments, points of time and split seconds are as in a photograph where all movement is stopped.
Time and memory.
Our memory of how things used to be, we call the past. Our perception of the world as things happen (move) around us, we call the present. Our knowledge that change will continue to occur, thanks to our memory of the past, gives us the knowledge that a future awaits us.
Without memory we would live in the constant present, not remembering the past, not knowing that a future awaits us and we would have no use for a clock nor have any concept of time.
Matter, radiation and forces are forms of energy.
Matter can be made from pure energy in extreme circumstances.
The universe consists solely of energy and space.
Adding energy causes faster movement. Without energy, no movements would occur anywhere in the universe.
Space is the three dimensions. It is volume. Space exists and is something.
Nothing has no dimensions, no volume. Nothing is non-existence.
The consequence of time is aging.
The faster change occurs, the faster the aging process is. Energy causes movement. Movement causes change. Anything that doesn't change doesn't age.
To measure time, a known, equal predictable movement such as a pendulum is required against which to measure the chaotic movements of the natural world.
To slow aging and the passage of time, all movements need to be slowed down. Cooling slows movement. If all movements were stopped, time would stop.
Time depends on movements.
Energy causes movement.
Energy is movement.
Space is needed for movements to occur in.
Without a memory, the past could not be recalled, so there could be no concept of a future. Time would have no meaning for us.
Time is change; the change in the position of matter and radiation in space.
Space is something.
Energy is movement.
Energy and space are the two basic components of the universe.
One can only ask. What is energy the movement of?
As energy and space and the sole constituents of the universe; the only possible answer is that: Energy is the movement of space.
A "Moving Space" universe.
The following is an attempt to fit together a universe that is purely moving space with the universe as it is understood to exist.
Imagine space as a medium which is able to flow like a liquid or a gas.
Energy is the movement of the medium.
Matter exists due to an ever-increasing scale of complex, interacting movements of space.
Movements within movements that are held together in a balanced, almost stable state by positives and negatives, clockwise and anticlockwise circular movements, which attract and repel each other.
Circular movements cause a stretching and distortion of space, as with a whirlpool of fluid, where there is a pull towards the centre. This causes forces.
When energy is gained or lost from the circular movements, they gain or lose motion in the form of waves in order to remain stable. The waves are electromagnetic radiation.
A "Moving Space" origin of the universe.
Imagine that the universe began when space burst "into" non-existence with incredible force.
The movements (energy) were chaotic with no pattern or order.
As space expanded, the movements had more room, and waves and circular movements formed.
The interaction of different circular movements, "whirls", caused a variety of "whirl" combinations.
Some of these combinations became relatively stable.
They were able to exist without much changing of their arrangement.
These relatively stable "whirl" combinations were atoms. They were able to combine to form molecules and make the universe, as we know it today.
Consider space when it's not moving as "inert" and undetectable, detectable only by its movements. Just as if someone's body was lying in a still pool, it would only feel moving water against it.
Something from nothing.
The above suggestion for the origin of the universe still has at least one stumbling block.
Where does space come from?
Getting "something from nothing" cannot be imagined by logical thinking and is not an acceptable answer.
However there is no logical answer to how space or any first thing could have come from nothing. Yet.
Questions and Answers.
Is time travel possible?
If the conclusion that time is the change in position of matter and radiation, then there is no possibility of time travel.
Time travel would involve moving all the matter and radiation in the universe back to the positions that they occupied at an earlier time. This could not be done.
Is Time a fourth dimension?
In mathematics, to plot an event, knowing its position as well as the time it occurred is essential.
This is why time is considered to be the fourth dimension along with length, breadth and thickness. Space and time are considered inseparable. In this context they are.
However time is not a physical dimension and without a mind that remembered past events and needed to consider future events, time would not exist as such, and three physical dimensions would exist alone, without energy to cause movements and change which give us time.
Does time exist or is it just a concept?
As explained above time does not exist in a material way. Without a memory, time could not be conceived of.
The changes in position of matter and radiation are real though.
Time is a useful concept to help people plot their path through the ever-changing universe around them.
Doesn?t time actually pass slower, the nearer you travel to the speed of light and would it stop passing at the speed of light; go backwards if light speed was exceeded?
Time passing slower at high speeds is due to the forces involved when accelerating at very high velocities, which we do not experience during everyday life.
For time to pass changes must occur. Changes occur when there is movement.
Let's say there were some people and a clock in a room.
If all of the atoms, matter and radiation could be made to move ten times faster, then in one year they would have aged 10 years compared to those people outside the room aging one year and the clock would have run ten times faster.
Time would have passed faster for them.
This example is used to emphasize the fact that the speed of movement causing change would speed up aging. It is realised that the example is not practical.
As for going backwards in time at higher than light speeds. This is yet to be proven and I doubt that it ever will be.
To go backward in time would require the backward movement of all matter and radiation to their former positions. I doubt that that is possible.
Isn?t the slowed aging of cooled or frozen products just a chemical effect rather than astrophysical or dimensional?
Astrophysics is the study of interstellar matter and the stars, their constitution, evolution and luminosity.
Is not all matter including stars and planets made of chemicals?
Chemical effects are as legitimate as astrophysical or dimensional effects.
Does energy always mean movement?
Wherever you find energy you find movement. Name a case of energy without movement if you can! Don't forget all atoms have constant sub-atomic movements occurring in their structure all of the time. Just because a body is not moving relative to another does not mean that electrons are not moving or that the atoms are not vibrating.
The cooler the temperature of a body the less vigorous are its atoms vibrations.
If something was cooled to absolute zero, its atoms would stop vibrating. It would contain very little energy.
To raise the temperature of a substance you have to apply heat. Heat is a form of energy.
It may well still have mass, although this website suggests that it may well not.
"Moving space theory" to explain problems and conflicts in physics?
An increase in mass of objects that travel at very high speeds.
Mass is the effect of the circular movement of space caused by energy. Adding energy to circular movements therefore increases the mass of the object.
Objects traveling at high speeds age more slowly.
Time is change. The faster things change, due to movement the faster they age.
Aging can only be slowed by slowing movement. Therefore travelling at high speeds close to the speed of light must cause a general slowing in movement atomically, possible due to the great forces involved.
The close relationship of waves and particles is easy to understand with "moving space". Particles are circular movements and waves are undulations of space.
Everything that is energy related is thought of as existing. Without energy it would be inert space.
Any object of mass that lost all its internal and external energy would cease to exist. There would be no turbulent movement of space to be sensed.
Time travel is not possible.